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Universidad de Murcia
Revista Internacional de Derecho Romano
Número 4 (2010)


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Artículo alojado en InterClassica = Artículo alojado en InterClassica
Artículo Páginas

Codex Theodosianus e scientia iuris. Ruolo e còmpiti del giurista nella tarda antichità

Amarelli, Francesco

Il momento della promulgazione del Codex Theodosianus debe allora essere inquadrato come l’occasione, ma anche come il luogo della testualità tardoantica attraverso il quale non è difficile percepire il senso e la dimensione della metamorfosi che aveva interessato i protagonisti della scienza giuridica di quel mondo: con riferimento alla medesima il legislatore tardoantico, ed il suo codice, hanno avuto un grosso ruolo nel rimodellarne, dei giuristi, figure e còmpiti, sia per il passato che per la loro contemporaneità. Sulle ceneri di una giurisprudenza caratterizzata dalla peculiarità dei suoi attori, vediamo cosí affermarsi un funzionarismo di corte, in seno al quale viene reinventato il ruolo dei giuristi.

The moment of the promulgation of the Codex Theodosianus must be framed as the occasion, but also as the place of the “testualità tardoantica” through which it is not difficult to perceive the sense and the dimension of the metamorphosis that it had interested the protagonists of the juridical science of that world: with reference to the same the legislator “tardoantico” and its code, have had a big role in the remodelation of the jurists and their task, for the past and that for their contemporaneity. On the ashes of a jurisprudence characterized by the peculiarity of their actors, we can see to affirm bureaucratization of court, in breast to which rinvent the role of the jurists.

1-16

origo, incolae, municipes y civitas Romana a la luz de la Lex Irnitana

Calzada González, Aránzazu

En este trabajo se analizan las relaciones entre origo y civitas en la legislación epigráfica española y especialmente en la Lex Irnitana donde no aparece el término origo sino el de incolae. El problema del origo presenta no pocas incógnitas tanto por las conexiones existentes entre origo, domicilium e incolae, como por la connotación más sociológica que jurídica del origo en época republicana, de tal manera que empieza a adquirir un significado técnico en época clásica, sobre todo a partir de Adriano. El concepto de origo se caracteriza por la alteridad, de tal manera que sería un concepto jurídicamente inoperante si no se pusiera en relación con individuos de distinto origo. En nuestra opinión, el abandono de la ciudad del origo instalándose en una ciudad distinta implicaba para el emigrante acatar los derechos y obligaciones de su nueva ciudad participando en sus munera, pudiendo alcanzar magistraturas y sacerdocios municipales cuyo carácter honorífico a finales de la República compensaba las cargas financieras que debían soportar los nuevos municipes. Podemos concluir que en la Lex Irnitana la alusión a los incolae se refiere a individuos de distinto origo instalados en Irni, pero su origo no era obstáculo para quedar igualmente sujetos a la ley municipal como si fuesen ellos mismos municipes, implicando una asimilación de personas con anterior adscripción a otras ciudades -peregrinas hasta el decreto de Vespasiano- a los irnitanos, que va mas allá de los derechos de los latinos en Roma durante el s. I a.C.

In this paper we will analyze the relation between origo and civitas, in the Spanish Epigraphic Law, and especially in the Lex Irnitana, where we will not find origo but incolae. Origo arose many questions both for the relations between origo, domicilium and incolae, as for the more sociological than juridical connotation in the Republican Age, acquiring a technical meaning during the Classic Age, especially from Adriano. Origo as a concept is typified by its alterity and would be a legally irrelevant concept if individuals from a different origo were not confronted. In our opinion, when the origo left the city, settling down in a different one implied for the immigrant to observe the rights and obligations of his new city, participating in its munera, and might reach magistracies and town priests that being honourable compensated the financial charges that have to expend the new municipes. We can conclude that in the Lex Irnitana the allusion to the incolae refers to individuals from different origo settled in Irni, but their origo was not an obstacle to be under the town law as if they were municipes themselves, implying an assimilation of people attached previously to other towns –considered pilgrims until the Vespasianus’ decree- to the Irni inhabitants, which go further away than the Latin rights in Rome during the I century B.C.

17-51

‘Respublica Polona curator morum’. Le clausole generale di buona fede, di buoni costumi e di principi di convivenza sociale nel codice civile polacco e la loro interpretazione dalla Suprema Corte di Polonia

Jurewicz, Aldona

Le c.d. clausole generali sono considerate, da parte della dottrina, come gli esempi di esistenza dei legami tra diritto ed etica. Il loro carattere distintivo consiste nell’adoperare termini indefiniti e imprecise, in gran parte delle valutazioni, allo scopo di definire un limite delicato tra diritto ed abuso del diritto. Il legislatore polacco non tende a definire in modo fisso, il contenuto delle clausole generali concrete, come la clausola di buona fede (art. 7), di buoni costumi (gli articoli, che riguardano all’obbligazioni precontrattuali e contrattuali) ed i principi di convivenza sociale (art. 5), presente nel codice civile polacco. L’obbligo di stabilirlo onera la dottrina ed un organo giudicante, tra l’altri, la Suprema Corte di Polonia. Sulla base di sentenze della Suprema Corte l’Autrice tenta di mostrare il significato delle clausole generali secondo la giustizia e la dottrina polacca. Le funzioni svolte dalle clausole generali nel sistema di diritto civile di Polonia sono quella di avvicinarlo a un ideale del diritto giusto. Il legislatore, il curator morum, utilizza i vari strumenti legislativi per creare la realtà ambita, e dall’altra parte per eliminare i costumi o le prassi considerate erronee.

In doctrine the general clauses are regarded as examples of relations between law and ethics. Their distinguishing character bases on undefined and inaccurate terminology that make an appraisal in order to determine fluid borderlines between what is lawful and unlawful. Polish legislator does not try to define precisely the meaning of individual general clauses as for example clause of good faith, clause of good customs, and principles of community life that are contained in the Code of Polish civil law. In this situation doctrine and Polish Supreme Court are burdened with necessity of making some clear definition of clauses. Author of this work tries to point out importance of above mentioned clauses in the light of doctrine and judicature. General clauses in the Polish civil law have one main purpose: to make law closer to the idealistic “just law”. The legislator acts as curator morum using various legal instruments to achieve desired effects and, on the other hand to eliminate out of legal system wrong customs and practices.

52-88

‘De lege Irnitana’: ¿modelo único en las leyes municipales Flavias?

Torrent, Armando

La existencia de una cierta uniformidad en las regulaciones municipales que se conocen de las diferentes comunidades urbanas tanto itálicas como hispánicas ha llevado a plantear en la doctrina romanística la existencia de una lex municipalis generalis que habría servido de marco general a partir del cual las singulares ciudades habrían derivado su concreta normativa. Las coincidencias que se encuentran entre las leges Salpensana y Malacitana con la lex Irnitana han servido de apoyo a teorías que, no obstante, no encuentran evidencias en las fuentes. En el presente artículo se repasan las más importantes opiniones al respecto y se defiende la formación de las distintas leyes municipales a través de un proceso basado en modelos romanos, bajo la idea de políticas integradoras; la existencia de núcleos normativos similares o incluso comunes a varias de ellas, dan prueba de la existencia de una larga experiencia en materia de legislación municipal que habría venido arrastrando los reflejos de normas anteriores y que, siguiendo el modo romano, permitió, no obstante, la singularidad de cada uno de ellos, pero no confirma la existencia de una lex municipalis generalis.

The existence of a certain uniformity in municipal regulations of different urban communities has led to raise the existence of a lex generalis that would have served as a framework from which the singular cities would have derived their specific legislation. Links between the leges Salpensana and Malacitana with the lex Irnitana have served to theories that, however, have not evidence in the sources. This paper reviews the most important views to this respect and defends the formation of the various municipal laws in a process based on Roman models under the idea of inclusive policies; the existence of similar or even common to several of them, normative nuclei are proof of the existence of a long experience in municipal legislation that would have been dragging reflexes of previous standards and which, following the Roman way, however, allowed to the singularity of each one of them, but does not confirm the existence of a lex municipalis generalis.

89-158

ante initium suffragium

Clemente Fernández, Ana Isabel

En este trabajo pretendemos poner de relieve las consecuencias que dimanan de las disposiciones contenidas en las leyes Publilia Philonis y Maenia en relación con la rogatio que el magistrado presenta ante los comitia centuriata, en virtud de la iniciativa legislativa que posee. Observaremos cómo la propuesta del magistrado podrá ser susceptible de cambios o transformaciones a tenor del parecer de los patres, expresado, a partir de esta normativa antes de la votación en la asamblea ciudadana.

In this work we want to underlines the effects emanated of the dispositions contained in the laws Publilia Philonis and Maenia in connection with the rogatio that the magistrate presents before the comitia centuriata, as consequence of the legislative initiative that he has. We will observe how the magistrate's proposal will be able to be susceptible from changes or transformations according to the patres’ opinion, expressed, since this normative, before the vote in the civic assembly.

159-182

Maciej Jońca, Głośne rzymskie procesy karne (Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich – Wydawnictwo, Wrocław, (2009), pp. 320

Korporowicz, Łukasz

185-193

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