Hemeroteca

Mirabilia
Número 2 (2002)
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Artículo alojado en InterClassica = Artículo alojado en InterClassica
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Mirabilia
Artículo

Bringing the Divine down into Man: the building-up of the yoga path

Fernandes, Edrisi

The author analizes the evolution of Yoga as an ascetic discipline, since the time of the absorption of the local inhabitants by the Aryan tribes, that settled in India in proto-historic times. Austerity vows, magical practices, breath control exercises and ascetic attitudes of the locals were incorporated in Vedic metaphysics and religion, and also in pre-classical Yoga. The discovery of the power of ascetic/meditational practices gave rise to a progressive distantiation of the yogis from external religious practices such as sacrifices, intended to propitiate the gods, and to a parallel advance of the view of yoga as a kind of sacrifice in itself, grounded on the association - thought as a binding or [re]union - between the Self/the living Soul (âtman; jivâtman) of man and the eternal norm (sanatana dharma), the “Lord of Creatures” (Prajâpati), the Supreme Being (Parameshtin; Brahman; Shiva of Shaivism; Vishnu of Vaishnavism), or the force or power (Shakti of Shaktism [Tantrism]) that makes life possible and maintains the cosmos. Through a review of the Purusha (Sanskrit for “person; man”, but also for “Universal man; man-god”) theme in some classical Indian literary references - encompassing the Rigveda, the Atharvaveda, many Upanishads, relevant portions of the Mahâbhârata (particularly of the Bhagavad-Gîtâ, and of the Mokshadharma and other sections of the Shânti Parva), the Yoga-Sûtra of Patañjali (the founding text of classical yoga), the Bhâgavata-Purâna, the Yoga-Vâsishtha attributed to Vâlmîki, and the Kulârnava-Tantra (an essential text to tantra-yoga), among others -, an articulation that consolidates human autonomy and superior status in the universe is perceived, giving way to the idea that one can be “enlighted”, and the God-in-man status can be achieved, both through knowledge (jñâna) and through yoga - the way of enlightment associated with bodily and mental control and stability, and with the achievement of trans-rational conciousness. Purely “transcendental” meditation and concentration practices progressively [re]turn to a situation where the body is valued as a kind of “temple”, that must be appropriately constructed and cared for in order to allow and to favour the final encounter and assimilation between man and the Divine.

Memória e Rapsódia: o canto divino na Arcádia

Dourado, Ciléa

The poetic activity of the Greek Golden Age, better known as Archadia, grew inside a pre-literate culture which was characterized, above all, by a mythological symbolism. The Archadian poetry points to the notion of the fantastic, of the sublime and of the divine in its purest form. The archaic Poet was endowed with the power directly by the gods, and such a power was non-negotiable and non-transferable. The lineage and succession of a rhapsodist was often brought out by Arete, the choice of the nobler.

Vínculos entre divindade e poder secular nos vasos de figuras negras da Lacônia no século VI a.C.

Moura, José Francisco de

This article wants to examine the divine images on Laconian black-figure vases with regard to the iconography in other types of Laconian materials, thus hoping to understand their politico-social function in the context of the Spartan society of the 6th century b.C.

Superstições e religiosidade na Res Publica: espaços de poder?

Lima, Luís Filipe Silvério

This paper deals with the links between religion and prophecy as forms of power in Livy.

La Cotidianeidad de una imagen: el rostro de Cristo

Manzi, Ofelia

A partir del siglo III cuando se crea y difunde un repertorio de imágenes cristianas, la identificación de los personajes de la Historia Sagrada se realizó mediante su asimilación a motivos vigentes en el arte romano. El estudio del origen, desarrollo y modificaciones sufridas por el rostro de Cristo, ofrece la posibilidad de analizar las múltiples fuentes de esa imagen y establecer cómo cambió su significación de acuerdo con la historia de la Iglesia.

Fear and Ecstatic Reaction to the Miracle Stories in the Synoptic Gospels

Nogueira, Paulo Augusto

Mística, Linguagem e Silêncio na Filosofia de Plotino (c. 205-270)

Marinho, Maria Simone Cabral

This article tries to highlight some important aspects of mystical experience in Plotinus, pointing out, above all, the problem of language that appears in the Plotinian Philosophy as a mediating term between the need to communicate the One and the impossibility of doing so.

Una iconografía polémica: los Magos de Oriente

Grau-Dieckmann, Patricia

"…unos magos vinieron del Oriente a Jerusalén” dice escuetamente el Evangelio de Mateo sobre esos ilustres visitantes que - siguiendo una estrella - llegan desde Oriente para adorar al Niño Jesús. Y refiere que, postrados, “le ofrecieron presentes de oro, incienso y mirra”. Posteriores relatos apócrifos y narraciones populares embellecen y enjoyan las leyendas sobre estos misteriosos personajes. El arte refleja muy tempranamente la iconografía de la escena de la adoración de los magos, conocida como “La Epifanía”, la que mutará con el tiempo hasta convertirse en la suntuosa representación de los personajes regios devenidos en los tres reyes magos.
El arte cristiano tardorromano puede aportar una clave para comprender quiénes eran, qué buscaban y qué motivos existieron para justificar la importancia que cobró la escena de la Epifanía en el marco de esta nueva religión - el cristianismo - que buscaba expandirse entre los gentiles.

Bruderschaften als Ausdruck der Volksfrömmigkeit und des Wegs zu Gott und in das Paradies

Militzer, Klaus

Este artículo analiza el fenómeno de las llamadas confraternidades y su desarrollo del siglo XIII al XVI. Centrándose en los ejemplos de Neuss y Köln, el autor destaca de un lado la relación entre el próspero crecimiento de estas comunidades laicas y la progresiva urbanización de la sociedad, el comercio, así como también la crisis espiritual desencadenada por las repetidas pestes. De otro lado, aborda las críticas dirigidas a las confraternidades que se multiplican sobre todo a partir de la reformación, aunque los reformadores no fueron los primeros en avanzar críticas con relación al modo de vida pródigo de los miembros de estas comunidades y de sus influencias políticas en el seno de la Iglesia. Estas críticas, en última instancia, llevarían a una reforma de la confraternidades con el Concilio Tridentino (1545-1563).

Hildegard de Bingen (1098-1179): o excepcional percurso de uma visionária medieval

Palazzo, Carmen Lícia

The goal of this article is to present a few aspects of the extensive body of work by the visionary nun Hildegard of Bingen, relating her acceptance with the 12th century context and suggesting certain research possibilities. The debate among monks of Cister and Cluny and the severe criticism to Abelard’s teachings by Bernard of Clairvaux constitute, in my opinion, an essential elements to be considered in order to explain the direct support by the Church to Hildegard’s texts and Hildegard as a person. However, it was certainly the quality of her work and her prodigious intelligence that consolidated her achievements not only as a visionary but also as composer, counsellor and therapist.

Deus não pode ser conhecido. A incognoscibilidade divina no 'Livro dos XXIV Filósofos' (capítulos XVI e XVII) e suas raízes na tradição filosófica ocidental

Reegen, Jan G. J. ter

The Liber XXIV Philosophorum in its XVIth e XVIIth thesis tells us about the ineffability of God as a consequence of His excellence and also in view of the fact that God can only think Himself. In this paper we will try to examine the base and dimensions of this statement, studying it as a part of a long tradition in ancient and medieval philosophy, i.e. Neoplatonism, and especially in the Liber de Causis.

Paraíso 'versus' Inferno: a 'Visão de Túndalo' e a Viagem Medieval em Busca da Salvação da Alma (séc. XII)

Zierer, Adriana

The Salvation in Middle Ages was connected to the idea of voyage. The medieval man saw himself as a voyager (homo viator), a walker between two worlds: the ephemerous earth, place of tentations and the Heaven, the kingdom of God and of celestials beings. If the individual suceeded in maintain his body pure, he would obtain the salvation, but if he failed his soul would be condemned with eternal chastiments in Hell or provisorial in the Purgatory. It was a medieval paradox the fact that the soul could only be saved by the body. Because this sentiment of guilt, broght by the Original Sin, the population usually searched for salvation by means of a voyage, for example the peregrinations to achieve the Saint Earth (Jerusalem). These displacements were insecures (bad trails, menace of robbery and of diseases) and seen as a form of salvation since the pilgrim never knew for sure if he would come back or not. He wanted to experience in his flesh what Christ and other martyrs had suffered. Another means of salvation was the isolation from the rest of society in search of a life connected to God, such as the hermits and monks did. Because of their despite for terrestrial pleasures and their lives consacrated in prayers and fastings to God, they were considered the purest in terrestrial society. The benedictine monks dedicated themselves to write Visions with the purpose of presenting the chastiments and pleasures of the souls in beyond. Their intention was to show to the people the correct rules of behavior to obtain the salvation. The exempla, such as the Vision of Tundalo, present the types of chastiments based on the seven capital sins, and the actions that should be performed to reach the Paradise: to give alms, to go to mass, to give riches to the Church and to avoid lust. Un common element from the Visions is the emphasis in the sensations of the five senses. For example, stink in Hell and perfume in Heaven. Tortures are explained by the use of darkness, screams and sorrows, in opposition to clarity, singing and happiness. In Iconography, with the Seven Deadly Sins, by Bosch, and The Final Jugdement, by Fra Angelico, the structure of the Visions is confirmed. The topos of the beyond, in the case of the Heaven, are characterized by an edenic landscape represented by gardens, chants, fountains, angels and leafy trees. Once in Hell, the geography presuppose some obstacles such as ways with narrow brigdes, boiling rivers, mountains, lakes of ice and monsters. Thus, the individual in Middle Ages wanted the salvation more for the fear of Hell than from the glories of the Heaven, and the human soul debated herself between the desire for the pleasures and the dread of the infernal abyss.

La transformació mística dels tòpics lírics medievals dins del 'Llibre d’amic e Amat' de Ramon Llull (1232-1316)

Pardo Pastor , Jordi

O Diabo e suas representações simbólicas em Ramon Llull e Dante Alighieri (séculos XIII-XIV)

Loureiro, Klítia
Scaramussa, Ziza

This article intents to recover the fundamentals elements of the conception of Devil and Hell in the medieval culture, particulary in the 13th and 14th century. We have analized the vision of the Devil and Hell discrived by Ramon Llull (1232-1316) in no Livro das Maravilhas (1288-1289), Doutrina para Crianças (1274-1276) and Livro dos Anjos (1274?-1283?), briefly comparing his conception with Dante Alighieri and his Divina Comédia (1307-1321).

Plethons (1360-1452) 'Nomoi' - Ein Beitrag zum Polytheismus in spätbyzantinischer Zeit und seiner Rezeption in der islamischen Welt

Akasoy, Anna

During his stay in Italy as a member of the Greek delegation at the Council of Union in Ferrara/Florence in 1438/9 George Gemistos Pletho criticized the intellectuals of the Latin West heavily for their overestimation of Aristotle and their disregard of Plato. Meanwhile he blamed the Arabic commentators of the Aristotelian corpus – Avicenna and Averroes – for this misinterpretation, Islam is used as a positive example in Pletho’s historical writings. On the other hand Pletho’s works were received in the Islamic world as well through the Arabic translation of his Nomoi done at the court of Mehmet II. This article offers a short overview of the different aspects of the relation between Pletho and Islam and the transliteration and translation of the Arabic translation of his Compendium Zoroastreorum.

visio et amor Dei: Nicolás de Cusa (m. 1464) y Juan de la Cruz (1542-1591)

Gutiérrez Bustos, Raúl Roberto

A la luz de la idea Nicolás de Cusa de que los diversos modos finitos de entender a Dios tienen su principio y fundamento en éste mismo y constituyen así modos en los cuales el Absoluto se ve a sí mismo, interpreta el autor la distinción entre principiantes, aprovechados y perfectos como modos diversos de entenderse a sí mismo, a Dios y al mundo estableciendo así que Juan de la Cruz tiene una clara conciencia de la función mediadora y constitutiva que el sujeto tiene respecto de la realidad.

Uma outra expressão do Divino: O Conhecimento do Espaço Geográfico pelos judeus na Idade Média e no Renascimento

Siqueira de Carvalho, Márcia

Voyages, since Antiquity, are important sources for topographical descriptions. Thus, religious persecutions, pilgrimages and commercial routes played a major role for geographical knowledge. This article focuses Jewish geographical knowledge in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

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